This newly designed and updated edition of Donald Bogle’s classic study and celebration of America’s “dark divas” now takes readers up to the present. Originally published in 1980, “Brown Sugar” was also the basis for the four-hour, four-part, documentary that appeared on PBS as well as on German Education Television, all also written by Bogle. Lavishly illustrated, “Brown Sugar” is a pioneering book – for example, in Bogle’s application of the operatic term “diva” to pop goddesses. The first edition traced America’s black female superstars from the beginning of the 20th century to 1980. This new edition will have three new chapters on the 1980s, the 1990s, and the first half of the present decade. “Brown Sugar” is not only about music stars. It is an unexcelled examination of the lives, careers, and sometimes-contradictory images (those public poses and private anxieties!) of African American goddesses of pop culture: the movies, television, music, and theatre. An interpretive history, “Brown Sugar” is not only about the accomplishments but also the sometimes heart-wrenching struggles and tragedies of highly talented and ambitious women who set out to announce themselves to the world – and while doing so, surmounted extraordinary obstacles, both professionally and personally.
Karl Samuda said that higher scores were recorded in 23 of the 34 subjects taken. He noted that of the 32,617 students who sat CSEC this year, 89.3 per cent obtained grades one to three. English language and mathematics recorded percentage passes of 82.8 per cent and 54.6 per cent, respectively. The results represent a 7.4 per cent increase in passes for English and 3.2 per cent decrease in passes for mathematics.
Samuda said there were also improvements in the sciences and some mathematical-related subjects, with integrated science having the highest percentage increase of 22.7 per cent. There were also improvements in the average pass rates for chemistry (8.6 per cent); biology (2.6 per cent); physics (3.9 per cent); additional mathematics (3.8 per cent); agricultural science – single award (7 per cent); technical drawing (3.7 per cent); information technology (2.2 per cent); music (10.9 per cent); textile, clothing and fashion (8.7 per cent) and visual arts (11.3 per cent).